Hyperglycemia explained

Diabetics who do the routine monitoring of glucose can detect increases in blood glucose, without symptoms of hyperglycemia.  For these patients it is recommended, whenever possible, to search for the level of glucose in the blood. This can be done preferably on the following occasions, fasting and before meals (breakfast and dinner); fasting and two hours after food; up to two hours after meals Postprandial glucose is measured within two hours after food. The interpretation of their results must be made by the doctor.

In patients with diabetes, insufficient medical treatment for food and daily activities often occurs.  Other causes may be: Diabetes mellitus and primary or secondary to other pathologies such as colds or infections in general; Abuse habits; Lack of exercise and

metabolic syndrome.

Symptoms include Polyuria (excess urine) excessive hunger, weight loss accompanied by tiredness, dry skin, headaches which may progress to nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, difficulty breathing and breath acetone (sweet taste).

Chronic complications of hyperglycemia are related to microangiopathy characterized by impairment of capillary blood vessels, nephropathy and retinopathy. Macroangiopathy is characterized by the involvement of the arteries and circulatory deficiency in the brain, heart and limbs. Retinopathy  is characterized by changes in vision such as perception of floats, coloured rings or halos, poor daytime vision, pressure or pain on the eyes, or hypersensitivity to light.

Nephropathy – Characterized by persistent albuminuria (albumin excretion levels above 300 mg / dl) in the absence of other renal disorders. Neuropathy is the sensation of numbness, impotence, digestive disorders, urinary and / or circulatory, skin dryness, ulcerative lesions on the feet and legs, among others.

High levels of glucose in the blood can lead to long term, irreversible changes in nerves and in large and small blood vessels.  Diabetes can also reduce the body’s ability to resist infection, and increase the propensity to eye problems, kidney disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes, brain damage and amputation of upper and lower limbs.

If there are identified elevated levels of blood glucose, you should see a doctor or a health service for diagnosis and treatment. Adequate control of diabetes can help prevent and avoid the problems, together with healthy changes in lifestyle of the patient as: a raised level of information, leading to better management of the problem;

selecting a nutritionally balanced eating plan rich in complex carbohydrates;

decreased intake of fats in the diet;

careful choice of meal times;

low impact physical exercises like walking, swimming and cycling;

visit health professionals regularly and following their recommendations.